Wet-bulb Temperature: The Hidden Measure of Heat Stress

Image by Kev from Pixabay

You may have heard about air temperature, but have you ever wondered if there’s more to it? Enter the wet-bulb temperature – a crucial yet lesser-known aspect of weather that plays a significant role in our lives, especially in the face of climate change. Let’s dive into the phenomenon of wet-bulb temperature, why it matters, and why it’s becoming increasingly important with the changing climate.

What is Wet-bulb Temperature?

To put it simply, the wet-bulb temperature is a measure of how much cooling effect our bodies can experience through the evaporation of sweat. It’s like the “feels-like” temperature that you might have heard about during weather forecasts – the temperature that takes into account not just the air temperature but also factors like humidity and wind chill.

Difference from Air Temperature:

Air temperature, as you know it, is the standard temperature we read on our thermometers, usually in degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit. It tells us how hot or cold the air is in our surroundings. On the other hand, the wet-bulb temperature is a more nuanced measure, incorporating humidity levels.

Importance of Knowing Wet-bulb Temperature

Knowing the wet-bulb temperature is crucial because it helps us understand the real impact of heat on our bodies. High wet-bulb temperatures indicate that our ability to cool down through sweating is compromised, leading to increased risks of heat-related illnesses like heat exhaustion and heatstroke. It also affects our overall comfort and productivity in hot and humid conditions.

Significance in the Face of Climate Change:

With the planet experiencing climate change, extreme heat events are becoming more frequent and intense. As a result, wet-bulb temperatures are rising in various regions worldwide. This rise presents a grave challenge, particularly in areas with vulnerable populations and limited access to cooling resources. It can strain power grids as people rely more on air conditioning, leading to energy-related problems during heatwaves.

Wet-bulb temperature is also vital for agriculture, as it impacts crop health and productivity. Certain crops become more susceptible to heat stress as wet-bulb temperatures increase, potentially affecting food production and supply.


Understanding the concept of wet-bulb temperature goes beyond a mere scientific curiosity. It is a crucial measure that helps us assess heat stress and its implications on human health, agriculture, and the environment. As climate change continues to alter weather patterns, monitoring and adapting to rising wet-bulb temperatures will be crucial to protect ourselves and our planet from the growing challenges posed by extreme heat events.

The advantages of driving an electric motorbike

As you may know I am driving a Voltra Matrix motocycle for nearly two years now. – and I am happy that I made the switch. Electric motorbikes have increasingly become a popular mode of transportation, notably for their environmental benefits and economic advantages. I see them more and more here in Cambodia. With the entry of companies like Yadea into the market, consumers now have a broader selection of stylish and efficient models to choose from.

Yadea’s Newest Models

Yadea, is a prominent player in the electric vehicle industry and has recently introduced innovative electric motorbike models that come with enhanced battery life, cutting-edge technology, and sleek designs. Some of their standout models include:

  1. Yadea YD-EV01: Known for its smart connectivity and powerful torque.
  2. Yadea G5: Features an impressive range with fast charging capabilities.
  3. Yadea Z3: A sporty option with advanced safety features.

These models align with the needs of both urban commuters and enthusiasts, offering a new dimension to electric biking. They became very popular in Cambodia.

The 5 Most Important Advantages of Electric Motorbikes

  1. Environmental Friendliness: Electric motorbikes emit zero tailpipe emissions, contributing to cleaner air and less pollution.
  2. Cost-Effective Operation: With electricity being considerably cheaper than gasoline, electric motorbikes are more economical to run.
  3. Energy Efficiency: Electric motors are highly efficient, converting more energy from the battery into forward motion.
  4. Low Maintenance Requirements: Electric motorbikes have fewer moving parts compared to traditional gasoline bikes, leading to lower maintenance costs and less frequent servicing.
  5. Noise Reduction: Electric motorbikes are generally quieter than their gasoline counterparts, reducing noise pollution in urban areas.

Average Costs of Electricity per Kilometer for Electric Motorbikes

Below is a graph showing the average costs of electricity per kilometer driving an electric motorbike:

Electricity Costs (Cents/km)
25 - |   ***
     |  **   **
20 - | *       *
     |*         *
15 - |*         *    ***
     |*         *  **   **
10 - |*         **       *
     |*        **         *
5  - |*       **           *
     |*********            *
0  - |_____________________
     0         50        100
      Yadea    Other    Other
     Models  Electric  Gasoline
               Bikes    Bikes

This graph illustrates how Yadea’s electric motorbikes are more cost-effective compared to other electric bikes and traditional gasoline bikes. It shows the potential for significant savings over time.


Electric motorbikes, especially the ones produced by Yadea, offer substantial benefits to the environment and the economy. From reducing emissions and noise pollution to lowering operational and maintenance costs, the advantages are multifaceted.

Yadea’s new models are at the forefront of this trend, providing modern features with an emphasis on performance and efficiency. These exciting developments make electric motorbikes an appealing option for an increasing number of consumers looking for a sustainable and cost-effective mode of transportation.

Unveiling the Hidden Culinary Gems: Discover the Unknown Delicacies of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia

As a travel writer and food enthusiast, I have always sought to explore the lesser-known aspects of a country’s cuisine. Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia, three Southeast Asian nations brimming with cultural richness, offer a treasure trove of hidden culinary delights. In this article, we will embark on a gastronomic journey to uncover the three best unknown dishes in these countries, providing not only a glimpse into their vibrant food culture but also the recipes to recreate these tantalizing flavors at home.

Vietnam: Bun Mam – Fermented Fish Soup with Rice Vermicelli

Vietnam’s culinary landscape goes far beyond pho and banh mi. In the Mekong Delta region, the lesser-known Bun Mam reigns as a flavor-packed dish that will awaken your taste buds. This robust soup combines fermented fish, rice vermicelli, shrimp, pork, and an array of vegetables, creating a harmonious symphony of flavors. Here’s how you can prepare this hidden gem:

How to cook Bun Mam


    • 200g fermented fish (mam ca sac)
    • 200g pork belly, thinly sliced
    • 200g shrimp, peeled and deveined
    • 200g rice vermicelli noodles
    • 2 tomatoes, sliced
    • 1 eggplant, sliced
    • 1 pineapple, diced
    • 1 onion, finely chopped
    • 4 cloves garlic, minced
    • 2 tablespoons fish sauce
    • 1 tablespoon sugar
    • Fresh herbs (Thai basil, cilantro, mint) for garnish
    • Lime wedges and chili peppers (optional) for serving


    1. In a pot, heat some oil and sauté the minced garlic and chopped onion until fragrant.
    2. Add the fermented fish, pork belly, and shrimp. Cook until the pork is lightly browned.
    3. Pour in enough water to cover the ingredients. Add the tomatoes, eggplant, and pineapple.
    4. Season with fish sauce and sugar. Simmer for about 20 minutes to allow the flavors to meld.
    5. Cook the rice vermicelli noodles according to the package instructions.
    6. To serve, place a portion of rice vermicelli in a bowl and ladle the hot soup over it.
    7. Garnish with fresh herbs. Serve with lime wedges and chili peppers on the side for extra heat.

    Laos: Or Lam – Spicy Stew with Wild Herbs and Meat

    Laos, a landlocked country with a rich culinary heritage, is home to Or Lam, a traditional dish that exemplifies the country’s love for bold flavors. Combining an assortment of wild herbs, vegetables, and meat, this spicy stew promises a symphony of textures and aromas. Let’s dive into the recipe:


    • 500g pork, beef, or chicken, cut into bite-sized pieces
    • 1 cup mixed wild herbs (lemongrass, dill, galangal leaves, basil, etc.)
    • 2 tablespoons fermented fish paste (pa daek)
    • 2 shallots, finely chopped
    • 4 cloves garlic, minced
    • 4 small eggplants, quartered
    • 4 small chili peppers, sliced
    • 2 tablespoons fish sauce
    • 1 tablespoon tamarind paste
    • 1 tablespoon sugar
    • Salt to taste


    1. In a large pot, heat some oil and sauté the chopped shallots and minced garlic until fragrant.
    2. Add the meat and brown it on all sides.
    3. Stir in the fermented fish paste and continue cooking for a few minutes.
    4. Pour in enough water to cover the meat. Add the wild herbs, eggplants, and chili peppers.
    5. Season with fish sauce, tamarind paste, sugar, and salt. Stir well to combine.
    6. Simmer the stew on low heat for about 1.5 to 2 hours until the meat is tender and the flavors meld together.
    7. Adjust the seasoning if needed.
    8. Serve Or Lam hot with steamed rice.

    Cambodia: Nom Banh Chok – Cambodian Rice Noodles with Fish Curry

    Nom Banh Chok, a beloved Cambodian dish, showcases the country’s culinary prowess. This unique breakfast delight features fresh rice noodles topped with a flavorful fish-based curry sauce and an array of fresh herbs and vegetables. Here’s how you can savor the taste of Cambodia in your own kitchen:


    • 500g fresh rice noodles
    • 500g white fish fillets (snakehead fish or catfish)
    • 2 tablespoons yellow curry paste
    • 2 cups coconut milk
    • 2 tablespoons fish sauce
    • 2 tablespoons sugar
    • 1 tablespoon tamarind paste
    • Fresh vegetables (bean sprouts, cucumber, banana blossom, etc.) for garnish
    • Fresh herbs (mint, cilantro, Thai basil) for garnish
    • Lime wedges and chili peppers (optional) for serving

    How to cook Khmer noodles

    1. In a pot, combine the yellow curry paste and coconut milk. Bring it to a simmer over medium heat.
    2. Add the fish fillets and cook until they are fully cooked and flaky. Remove the fish from the pot and set it aside.
    3. Add fish sauce, sugar, and tamarind paste to the curry sauce. Stir well and let it simmer for another 10 minutes.
    4. Cook the rice noodles according to the package instructions.
    5. To serve, place a portion of rice noodles in a bowl. Ladle the fish curry sauce over the noodles.
    6. Top with fresh vegetables and herbs.
    7. Serve Nom Banh Chok with lime wedges and chili peppers on the side for additional flavor and heat.


    Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia not only enchant travelers with their breathtaking landscapes and rich history but also captivate food enthusiasts with their hidden culinary treasures. From the pungent flavors of Bun Mam in Vietnam to the fiery allure of Or Lam in Laos and the aromatic charm of Nom Banh Chok in Cambodia, these lesser-known dishes invite you to embark on a gastronomic adventure that will leave your taste buds forever grateful.

    Modern Leadership in Companies: The Power of Empathy and Social Skills

    Leadership is about teamwork. Image by Werner Heiber from Pixabay

    Introduction to modern leadership

    In the dynamic and ever-evolving landscape of the corporate world, leadership plays a crucial role in guiding organizations towards success. Traditionally, leadership was associated with authority and control, but in the modern era, the focus has shifted towards empathy and social skills. This essay explores the main different ways of modern leadership, with a particular emphasis on empathy and social skills. It also provides examples of companies that have successfully challenged leadership obstacles, along with a discussion of the five most common mistakes made by leaders and the ten best ways to lead a team or a company successfully.

    Image by Joseph Mucira from Pixabay

    Different Ways of Modern Leadership

    a) Transformational Leadership: Transformational leaders inspire and motivate their teams by setting clear goals and providing support and guidance. They encourage creativity, foster innovation, and empower employees to reach their full potential. An example of this leadership style can be seen in Satya Nadella, CEO of Microsoft, who transformed the company’s culture by promoting collaboration and empathy.

    b) Servant Leadership: Servant leaders prioritize the needs and growth of their team members above their own. They actively listen, show empathy, and facilitate the development of their employees. Patagonia’s founder, Yvon Chouinard, exemplifies servant leadership by emphasizing the well-being of his employees and the environment.

    c) Authentic Leadership: Authentic leaders are genuine, transparent, and lead with integrity. They build trust and credibility by staying true to their values and principles. Howard Schultz, the former CEO of Starbucks, demonstrated authentic leadership by focusing on social responsibility and creating a company culture centered around community engagement.

    Successful Examples of Leadership Overcoming Obstacles

    a) Google: Sundar Pichai, CEO of Google, successfully tackled the challenge of maintaining innovation and adaptability in a rapidly changing industry. He prioritized empathy and social skills by creating a supportive work environment and encouraging open communication and collaboration.

    b) Adobe Systems: Shantanu Narayen, CEO of Adobe, led the company through a major transition from a traditional software model to a cloud-based subscription service. His effective leadership involved fostering a culture of continuous learning and empowering employees to embrace change.

    Five Most Common Mistakes Made by Leaders:

    a) Lack of Empathy: Leaders who fail to understand and connect with their team members on an emotional level may struggle to build trust and loyalty within the organization.

    b) Poor Communication: Inadequate communication can lead to misunderstandings, low morale, and decreased productivity. Leaders must be clear, concise, and open in their communication.

    c) Micromanagement: Overly controlling leaders can stifle creativity, demotivate employees, and hinder growth. It is important to delegate tasks and trust the capabilities of team members.

    d) Ignoring Feedback: Leaders who dismiss or overlook valuable input from their team members miss opportunities for improvement and innovation.

    e) Lack of Adaptability: In a rapidly changing business landscape, leaders who resist change and fail to adapt can hinder the organization’s progress.

    Ten Best Ways to Lead a Team or a Company Successfully

    a) Lead by Example: Demonstrate the behavior and values you expect from your team members.

    b) Develop Emotional Intelligence: Understand and manage your own emotions while being empathetic towards others.

    c) Foster a Positive Work Culture: Create an environment that encourages collaboration, trust, and continuous learning.

    d) Communicate Effectively: Clearly convey expectations, provide constructive feedback, and actively listen to your team members.

    e) Delegate and Empower: Delegate tasks to capable individuals and empower them to make decisions.

    f) Encourage Innovation: Foster a culture that rewards creativity, risk-taking, and learning from failures.

    g) Recognize and Reward Achievements: Acknowledge and appreciate